Are Your Operational Technologies Truly Secure?
In the present landscape of digital interconnections, where operational technology (OT) serves as the lifeblood of industries, ensuring the robust security of these systems emerges as more crucial than before. Imagine a world where an organization’s crucial infrastructure remains safeguarded from online menaces, ensuring the confidentiality of your information and preserving the integrity of your production procedures.
This reality is within reach, with the solution lying in adept vulnerability management!
Welcome to the ultimate guide to managing vulnerabilities in 2023, serving as your guiding light in the cybersecurity domain for OT. Within this all-encompassing exploration, we unveil the mysteries surrounding systems and utilities for vulnerability management. This gives you the information you need to confidently navigate the always-changing environment of potential hazards.
Our guide explores vulnerability management in great detail, not just on the surface. From understanding the fundamentals to implementing cutting-edge tools, we’ve got you covered.
We comprehend the nuances of your concerns—balancing system uptime while staying impervious to cyber threats is no easy feat. But fear not, for we bring you actionable insights that empower you to bolster your defenses without sacrificing productivity.
Did you Know?
Enterprises that use risk-based vulnerability management will suffer 80% fewer breaches.
What is Vulnerability Management?
Vulnerability Management in the context of OT is a proactive strategy to safeguard industrial systems from potential cyber threats. It involves systematically identifying, assessing, and mitigating vulnerabilities that could compromise the integrity, availability, or confidentiality of critical assets.
A robust vulnerability management program tailored for OT environments establishes a structured framework for continuously monitoring and addressing vulnerabilities.
Vulnerability Management as a Service (VMaaS) takes this further by offering expert assistance and tools to organizations, often including specialized solutions for OT settings. This service-driven approach streamlines vulnerability scanning, risk assessment, and remediation efforts, providing businesses with a comprehensive shield against evolving threats.
In essence, Vulnerability Management in OT combines strategic planning, regular assessments, and timely mitigation to identify and address vulnerabilities proactively before they can be exploited.
It ensures that critical industrial systems remain resilient and secure, even in the face of ever-changing cyber challenges.
Why is Vulnerability Management Important for Organizations?
It’s more crucial than ever to stay one step ahead of potential dangers in the constantly changing world of cybersecurity, especially when it comes to operational technology.
OT has advanced into the future as a result of the widespread use of digital technologies, helping firms achieve new levels of productivity and innovation. Threat actors constantly search for gaps to attack within these complex systems.
Therefore, this shift has also cast a shadow. Your organization’s readiness to deal with cyberattacks, not resistance to them, is what matters.
So, Are You Ready to Elevate Your OT Security? Let’s Begin.
Here’s why effective vulnerability management is non-negotiable in the world of OT:
Preserving Operational Continuity
Disruptions can lead to catastrophic consequences in OT environments. Vulnerabilities in industrial control systems (ICS) or SCADA systems can not only halt operations but also compromise safety. Implementing a robust vulnerability management strategy ensures that operational processes continue smoothly without compromising the integrity of the systems.
Mitigating Cyber Risks
Malicious actors constantly seek vulnerabilities to exploit. For OT, this could result in unauthorized access to critical systems or even the manipulation of processes, leading to financial losses and reputational damage. Effective vulnerability management is a proactive shield against cyber threats, reducing the organization’s risk exposure.
Compliance and Regulations
Many industries operating in the OT sector are subject to stringent regulations and compliance standards. Adhering to these requirements necessitates a comprehensive vulnerability management approach. Failure to do so not only invites legal consequences but also puts the organization at risk of cyber incidents.
Let’s explore some notable standards that regulate OT security
ISA/IEC 62443 (International Society of Automation/International Electrotechnical Commission)
This comprehensive standard outlines the cybersecurity requirements for industrial automation and control systems. With its multi-part framework, IEC 62443 addresses various aspects of OT security, from network design to system lifecycle management. Its global recognition underscores its significance in safeguarding industrial processes against cyber threats.
Download Checklist: The IEC 62443 Checklist
NCAs OTCC-01: 2022 (National Cybersecurity Agency of Saudi Arabia)
The Saudi Arabian regulatory body provides a set of guidelines, OTCC-01, focusing on securing industrial systems against cyber risks. These guidelines encompass risk management, security architecture, incident response, and more, providing organizations with a structured approach to OT security.
Read about: Operational Technology Cybersecurity Controls by NCA
NIST 800-82R3 (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
Specifically tailored for industrial control systems, NIST 800-82R3 offers guidelines for protecting these critical assets. It covers security assessments, access control, and anomaly detection as a crucial reference for OT security practitioners.
NIST SP 800-53 Rev. 5
While not exclusively focused on OT, this NIST publication provides an inclusive catalog of security and privacy controls for information systems and organizations. Its relevance also extends to OT security, offering a robust foundation for implementing security measures.
Enforced within the North American electricity industry, NERC CIP standards ensure the reliability and security of the bulk power system. It encompasses a range of requirements, from physical security to cybersecurity, to mitigate risks associated with power generation and distribution.
EU Mandate NIS 2 (Network and Information Systems Directive)
Building upon its predecessor, NIS 2 aims to enhance the cybersecurity posture of essential and digital service providers within the European Union. With specific provisions for OT systems, this directive emphasizes incident reporting, risk management, and cross-border cooperation.
Protecting Valuable Assets
OT systems manage valuable physical assets, from energy production to manufacturing equipment. A breach could disrupt these operations and lead to permanent damage. Vulnerability management safeguards these high-value assets against potential exploitation.
Securing Supply Chains
In interconnected industries, a vulnerability in one part of the supply chain can cascade through partners and suppliers, leading to widespread vulnerabilities. A thorough vulnerability management system ensures that the entire ecosystem remains resilient.
Building Stakeholder Trust
In an era where cybersecurity incidents dominate headlines, organizations that demonstrate a proactive commitment to safeguarding their OT systems foster trust among customers, investors, and stakeholders. This trust is invaluable in maintaining business relationships.
Timely Response to Emerging Threats
Cyber threats are constantly evolving. Effective vulnerability management enables organizations to identify and respond to emerging threats promptly, reducing the window of vulnerability and potential impact.
What to Expect: OT/ICS Vulnerability Management Services
As we discuss its importance, we must understand the pivotal role vulnerability management systems play in securing OT. We must address a unique challenge that sets OT apart from traditional IT environments. The intricate nature of OT and IoT devices introduces complexities that make scanning and securing these systems far more demanding.
Unlike IT systems that often adhere to standardized communication protocols, OT systems rely on diverse proprietary protocols designed for communication between Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and controls. This diversity stems from the specialized nature of OT operations, making each ecosystem unique. While this specificity enhances efficiency, it poses a considerable hurdle regarding vulnerability scanning and assessment.
Scanning OT and IoT devices isn’t as straightforward as applying a standardized protocol check. The diverse protocols these systems utilize often lack the well-defined structures that simplify vulnerability assessment in IT. This challenge necessitates specialized knowledge and skills possessed by OT/ICS experts who can unravel the intricacies of these protocols and understand their vulnerabilities.
This is where specialists like Sectrio step in. Their expertise in OT and ICS environments empowers them to navigate this intricate landscape. With a deep understanding of the diverse protocols and communication structures, they can effectively assess vulnerabilities and recommend tailored solutions. This specialized approach ensures that the unique vulnerabilities inherent in OT systems are identified and addressed, enhancing the overall security posture.
As organizations grapple with safeguarding their operational technology, embracing specialized expertise becomes a strategic imperative. By collaborating with specialists like Sectrio and adopting a holistic vulnerability management strategy, organizations can navigate the complexities of OT vulnerability management and steer toward a safer and more resilient future.
What are the Steps in the OT/ICS Vulnerability Management Lifecycle?
Before we understand the steps in the vulnerability management process, it is essential to understand the link between vulnerability, risk, and threat.
- Vulnerability is a weakness that exposes the assets of your organization to threats.
- A threat is a malicious activity that leverages the vulnerabilities present.
- Risk occurs when a threat exploits the vulnerability and causes damage to the assets of the organization.
A vulnerability management program includes threat intelligence and risk assessment features to be called an effective one.
Let us delve deep into the steps involved:
In the first step of the vulnerability management lifecycle, you initiate an exhaustive inventory of all assets within your Operational Technology environment. This entails identifying and documenting every device, software application, network component, and Internet of Things (IoT) device connected to your system. Robust asset discovery forms the cornerstone for effective vulnerability management.
The architecture review is a meticulous examination of your OT system’s design and structure. This involves understanding your ecosystem’s intricate interactions, dependencies, communication protocols, and critical nodes. The goal is to identify potential vulnerabilities stemming from design flaws, insecure configurations, and points of convergence where threats could exploit weak links.
Armed with insights from the architecture review, you proceed to the vulnerability assessment phase. Utilizing specialized scanning tools, you systematically identify vulnerabilities across your assets. This encompasses known software vulnerabilities, open ports, misconfigurations, and weak authentication methods.
Vulnerability assessment is a cornerstone of effective cybersecurity, allowing organizations to identify and address potential weaknesses within their systems systematically. This vital step in the vulnerability management lifecycle involves a comprehensive analysis of your Operational Technology environment, revealing areas where malicious actors could potentially exploit vulnerabilities.
Types of Vulnerability Assessment:
1. Network Vulnerability Assessment:
This type identifies vulnerabilities within your network infrastructure. It involves scanning network devices, routers, switches, firewalls, and other components to detect open ports, misconfigurations, and known vulnerabilities that could be exploited.
2. Application Vulnerability Assessment
Application vulnerabilities are a prime target for cyber attackers. This assessment involves scrutinizing software applications for vulnerabilities like SQL injection, cross-site scripting (XSS), and other code-related weaknesses that attackers could exploit.
3. Host Vulnerability Assessment
Host-level vulnerability assessment centers on individual systems such as servers, workstations, and IoT devices. Scans are conducted to identify missing patches, misconfigurations, weak passwords, and other vulnerabilities specific to each host.
4. Wireless Network Vulnerability Assessment
As wireless networks become more prevalent, assessing their security becomes critical. This type of assessment examines wireless access points, encryption protocols, and potential weaknesses that could compromise network security.
5. Cloud Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment
With the rise of cloud computing, ensuring cloud infrastructure security is paramount. This assessment evaluates the configuration of cloud resources, identifying misconfigured settings that might expose data or services.
Recommended reading: How to get started with OT security
Risk Prioritization: Risk Based Vulnerability Management
Not all vulnerabilities are created equal. The risk prioritization step involves assessing the potential impact and exploitability of each vulnerability. Assign risk scores based on parameters such as the criticality of the affected asset, potential damage, and likelihood of exploitation.
1. Impact Assessment
Evaluate the potential consequences of each vulnerability. Consider how its exploitation could impact operations, data integrity, and overall system stability.
2. Likelihood Evaluation
Gauge the likelihood of a vulnerability being exploited. Consider factors like exposure level, ease of exploitation, and presence of known exploits.
3. Asset Criticality Analysis
Factor in the criticality of assets affected by vulnerabilities. Prioritize those that compromise essential components or services vital to your operations.
4. Scoring and Ranking
Assign risk scores based on impact, likelihood, and criticality assessments. Rank vulnerabilities to create a clear hierarchy of risk levels.
5. Resource Allocation and Mitigation
Allocate resources to address high-risk vulnerabilities first. Develop mitigation strategies, focusing on patching, configuration changes, or other countermeasures.
Also, when it comes to risk prioritization, leveraging CVEs and CVSS scores plays a pivotal role. These scores quantify vulnerabilities, helping organizations gauge their severity.
Effective prioritization hinges on mapping these vulnerabilities using the MITRE framework. By aligning vulnerabilities with criticality scores and MITRE’s comprehensive framework, organizations gain a strategic approach to addressing threats, ensuring that resources are channeled towards vulnerabilities with the highest potential impact.
Following these concise steps, you strategically address vulnerabilities, fortifying your OT environment against potential threats. In the context of risk prioritization, a real-time dashboard serves as a valuable internal tool, particularly for large organizations. Such a dashboard, exemplified by Sectrio, provides instant visibility into the risk landscape, aiding efficient decision-making and resource allocation.
With a clear understanding of the risks posed by prioritized vulnerabilities, you formulate a comprehensive remediation plan. This entails detailing the required actions, whether they involve applying patches, modifying configurations, or implementing mitigations. Consider potential operational impacts and plan strategically to minimize disruptions.
Implementing patches is a critical aspect of the vulnerability management lifecycle. Apply security patches or updates to address known vulnerabilities. Ensure a well-structured patch management process, which includes testing patches in a controlled environment before rolling them out to production systems.
Testing and Validation:
Before implementing changes in your live environment, subject them to rigorous testing and validation. This step ensures that proposed solutions effectively address vulnerabilities without causing unintended consequences. Rigorous testing minimizes the risk of disruptions and ensures the stability of your OT systems.
Once validated, approved changes are rolled out across your OT environment. This stage requires meticulous coordination with relevant teams to ensure seamless execution. A successful implementation balances security needs with operational continuity.
The threat landscape evolves, necessitating continuous vigilance. Implement ongoing monitoring mechanisms to detect new vulnerabilities, changes in system behavior, and deviations from established baselines. Regular monitoring helps you detect and respond swiftly to emerging threats.
Documentation and Reporting:
Throughout the lifecycle, maintain detailed records of the entire vulnerability management process. Document vulnerabilities discovered, assessments conducted, remediation actions taken, and their outcomes. To ensure transparency and compliance, generate regular reports for stakeholders, auditors, and decision-makers.
Review and Iteration:
Regularly revisit your vulnerability management strategy to assess its effectiveness. Analyze the outcomes of vulnerability assessments, remediation efforts, and ongoing monitoring. Adapt your approach based on emerging vulnerabilities, evolving threat landscapes, and new best practices to enhance your OT security posture.
By meticulously following each step in the vulnerability management lifecycle, organizations can proactively secure their OT systems against potential threats, ensuring the integrity, availability, and confidentiality of critical assets in an ever-changing cybersecurity landscape.
What is patch management?
Patch management, particularly in Operational Technology, entails identifying, applying, and verifying updates (patches) to software, firmware, or hardware to rectify vulnerabilities or enhance functionality. In OT, patch management often involves the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) patching devices on-premises or remotely. This scenario introduces two distinct threats to OT networks:
Remote Access Threat
The necessity of remote patching grants potential remote access points, creating a potential security vulnerability. If not managed securely, unauthorized access could lead to breaches, making robust security measures crucial during remote patching.
Lack of Compensatory Measures Threat
In cases where OEMs patch OT devices, the delay before patch deployment necessitates compensatory measures. The absence of these interim safeguards exposes systems to vulnerabilities until the patches are applied, emphasizing the need for protective measures in the interim period.
Although there are instances when patch management and vulnerability management are used synonymously, they are quite different. Let us explore their differences here:
What is the Difference Between Patch Management and Vulnerability Management?
|Addresses specific vulnerabilities by applying patches.
|Encompasses a broader strategy to identify, assess, and mitigate vulnerabilities.
|Apply fixes to known vulnerabilities.
|Identify, prioritize, and manage vulnerabilities across the system.
|Reactive approach to specific vulnerabilities.
|Proactive approach to vulnerabilities across the entire system.
|Application of patches to software, firmware, or hardware.
|Includes vulnerability scanning, risk assessment, and mitigation strategies.
|Occurs after vulnerabilities are discovered.
|Ongoing process to preemptively manage vulnerabilities.
|Directly reduces risk associated with known vulnerabilities.
|Manages risk by identifying vulnerabilities and implementing strategies to mitigate them.
|Applying updates or patches to vulnerable components.
|Involves comprehensive scanning, analysis, and risk assessment.
|Focuses on addressing specific vulnerabilities already known.
|Takes a holistic approach to prevent and manage vulnerabilities.
|Ensures systems are up-to-date and secure against known threats.
|Establishes a proactive security posture by identifying and addressing vulnerabilities.
In essence, while Patch Management targets specific vulnerabilities through the application of patches, Vulnerability Management is a comprehensive strategy that encompasses a broader range of activities to proactively manage vulnerabilities across the entire system or network.
Is Penetration Testing a Part of Vulnerability Management?
Yes, penetration testing commonly integrates with vulnerability management in an OT context. Penetration testing, or “pen testing,” involves simulating actual cyberattacks to uncover vulnerabilities and evaluate the efficiency of existing security measures.
In OT environments, where breach consequences can be severe, penetration testing proactively identifies potential weaknesses not consistently detectable through routine vulnerability scans.
While vulnerability management centers on spotting and mitigating vulnerabilities throughout the system, penetration testing attempts to exploit these vulnerabilities in a controlled setting. This approach helps organizations comprehend the potential consequences of a successful attack and validates the adequacy of their security controls.
Incorporating penetration testing within vulnerability management bolsters OT security by offering insights into real-world risks and ensuring that comprehensive measures are in place to thwart potential cyber threats.
Challenges of Penetration Testing in Operational Technology and Potential Alternatives
Penetration Testing in the OT landscape poses unique challenges due to the critical nature of industrial systems. Some challenges include:
- Disruption Risk: Pen tests can potentially disrupt OT operations, leading to production outages or safety concerns.
- Lack of Environment Replication: Replicating complex OT environments for testing can be problematic, impacting the accuracy of results.
- Regulatory Compliance: OT environments often adhere to stringent regulations, making testing and reporting complex.
- Limited Expertise: Skilled pen testers with OT knowledge are scarce, affecting test quality.
- Safety Concerns: Testing safety-critical systems could lead to unintended physical consequences.
- Network Monitoring: Continuously monitor network traffic for anomalies and unauthorized activities.
- Anomaly Detection Systems: Implement AI-driven systems to detect abnormal behavior indicating potential attacks.
- Red Teaming: Use experienced teams to simulate attacks without causing operational disruption.
- Threat Hunting: Actively search for potential threats and vulnerabilities in the environment.
- Virtual Testing Environments: Simulate OT environments virtually for safer testing.
Balancing the need for security assessment with operational safety is paramount in OT. Utilizing alternatives that minimize disruption and address specific challenges can help maintain the integrity of critical systems.
Features of Vulnerability Management Tools
Vulnerability management tools offer essential features tailored to safeguard industrial systems. These features include precise asset discovery, support for specialized OT protocols, thorough vulnerability scanning, risk assessment, and asset criticality mapping. These tools enhance OT security by addressing vulnerabilities effectively.
|Identifies devices, applications, and components in the OT environment for accurate assessment.
|OT Protocol Support
|Supports specialized communication protocols used in OT systems, ensuring accurate scans.
|Conducts thorough scans to detect vulnerabilities across OT systems and components.
|Assesses vulnerabilities based on their potential impact, helping prioritize critical issues.
|Maps vulnerabilities to asset importance, aiding in targeted mitigation based on criticality.
|Maintains a database of OT-specific vulnerabilities, ensuring accurate assessment.
|Integrates with patching solutions for streamlined application of updates in OT environments.
|Generates reports tailored for OT stakeholders, providing actionable insights.
|Evaluates vulnerabilities against OT regulations and compliance standards.
|Integrates with OT tools for cohesive security management.
How Sectrio Scores Better as a Vulnerability Management Tool?
Providing state-of-the-art cybersecurity solutions for converged networks, Sectrio ensures the safety of your OT and IoT environments, swiftly identifying threats and responding effectively.
|Key Strengths of Sectrio
|Deep Investigations and Prioritization
|Sectrio excels in thorough investigations, prioritizing vulnerabilities based on diverse parameters and filters.
|Extensive Protocol Support
|With support for 200+ OT protocols, Sectrio effectively caters to a wide range of operational technology environments.
|Sectrio provides comprehensive solutions for managing vulnerabilities across complex networks, streamlining the process.
|The multi-tenancy feature centralizes management by enabling control over multiple facilities from a single, user-friendly dashboard.
|Real-Time Rogue Asset Identification
|Sectrio swiftly identifies and isolates rogue assets in real-time, enhancing security measures and preventing potential threats.
|Extensive Central Database
|With a vast central database covering over 40,000 platforms, Sectrio offers an extensive resource for effective vulnerability assessment.
|The tool’s continuous monitoring ensures that vulnerabilities are promptly detected and addressed, bolstering the overall security posture.
|360-Degree Vulnerability View
|Sectrio’s 360-degree view of vulnerabilities enables in-depth analysis, empowering organizations to understand and manage risks comprehensively.
|Passive Scanning for Endpoints
|The inclusion of passive scanning aids in the pinpointing of endpoints and traffic patterns, contributing to a more accurate assessment.
|Smart Probing for Enhanced Accuracy
|Sectrio’s unique “smart probing” correlates device attributes with firmware data and CVE information, enhancing accuracy in vulnerability assessment.
|Holistic Vulnerability Management
|Sectrio’s amalgamation of features provides a holistic approach to vulnerability management, ensuring a robust and thorough security strategy.
Multi-Layer Tree Model for Enterprise Vulnerability Management
The Multi-Layer Tree Model for Enterprise Vulnerability Management is a comprehensive framework that draws inspiration from various approaches, including the Purdue Model and industry-specific frameworks designed for utilities and large manufacturers.
This model incorporates:
This layered architecture categorizes systems into distinct levels, from the process level to the enterprise level. The model ensures a structured and secure environment by segregating critical operations and implementing security measures at each layer.
Tailored for utilities, these frameworks emphasize securing interconnected networks crucial for critical operations. Identifying vulnerabilities across energy, water, or other utility sectors enables effective risk management.
Large Manufacturer Frameworks
Designed for manufacturing environments, these frameworks address vulnerabilities within intricate production networks. They prioritize protecting machinery, data flow, and communication channels critical to large-scale production processes.
By incorporating elements from the Purdue Model and industry-specific frameworks, the Multi-Layer Tree Model enhances vulnerability management by structuring defenses, ensuring seamless operations, and addressing industry-specific challenges.
Vulnerability Management Best Practices
Vulnerability management is not a one-off process. Here are some best practices to be followed:
- Continuous Monitoring: Regular and automated scans ensure vulnerabilities are promptly identified. Combine active scans for known vulnerabilities with passive monitoring for anomalous behavior, providing a comprehensive view.
- Prioritization: Utilize risk-scoring methodologies like CVSS to prioritize vulnerabilities based on potential impact and exploitability. Consider factors like asset criticality, data sensitivity, and potential business impact.
- Risk Assessment: Contextualize vulnerabilities within your organization’s unique operational environment. Assess whether a vulnerability could lead to operational downtime, data breaches, or safety risks.
- Patch Management: Establish a well-defined patching process. Prioritize critical systems, test patches in a controlled environment, and implement them swiftly while ensuring minimal disruption.
- Multi-Layered Defense: Combine firewalls, intrusion detection systems, access controls, and encryption to create multiple lines of defense. This approach limits the potential pathways for exploitation.
- Regular Testing: Regularly perform penetration tests and red team exercises to simulate real-world attacks. This proactive approach helps uncover vulnerabilities that may not surface through automated scans.
- Compliance Checks: Align vulnerability management practices with relevant industry regulations and standards, ensuring compliance while enhancing overall security.
- Education and Training: Educate employees about security risks, safe practices, and the importance of reporting vulnerabilities promptly. Regular training sessions foster a vigilant and security-conscious workforce.
- Incident Response Plan: Develop an inclusive incident response plan that outlines steps to take when vulnerabilities are exploited. This ensures a swift and organized response to mitigate potential damage.
- Documentation: Maintain a detailed record of vulnerability assessments, mitigation strategies, and outcomes. This documentation aids in accountability, compliance, and future reference.
- Vendor Management: Assess third-party software and services for vulnerabilities before integration. Maintain open communication with vendors to promptly address and resolve identified issues.
- Communication: Foster collaboration between IT, security teams, and business stakeholders. Regularly share insights on vulnerabilities, mitigation strategies, and the evolving threat landscape.
By diligently following these best practices, organizations can create a proactive and robust vulnerability management strategy, minimizing risks and bolstering their cybersecurity posture.
The US National Vulnerability Database (NVD) published over 25,000 vulnerabilities in 2022, which is 20% more than the previous year. This statement explicitly exposes the importance of vulnerability assessment and management by giving a glimpse of the evolving number of threats.
While technology has thrown open immense development opportunities, it also has another side with loopholes, making organizations an easy prey for hackers. With the threat landscape trying to evade all scanners, there is increased stress on organizations to keep a close watch.
In the ever-evolving landscape of cybersecurity, the significance of securing Operational Technology has never been more profound. As we conclude this comprehensive guide on Vulnerability Management in 2023, remember that OT environments demand vigilant protection.
By implementing best practices and advanced tools, from Sectrio, tailored to the intricacies of industrial systems, you fortify your defenses against ever-persistent threats. As the digital world intertwines with physical operations, robust vulnerability management remains the cornerstone of a secure and resilient OT landscape.
Embrace the knowledge gained here to safeguard your operational assets and keep pace with the dynamic challenges of the digital age.. As always, prevention is better than cure.